Document Abstract

Global Wage Report 2018/19: what lies behind gender pay gaps

Analyses global and regional wage trends and examines the gender pay gap around the world. Draws on previous studies and information from: the European Commission, AMECO (Annual macro-economic database); ILO Global Wage database; ILOSTAT; IMF World Economic Outlook database; OECD Earnings database; and the World Bank Open database. Compares wage growth in high-income countries and in low- and middle-income countries. Shows that global wage growth in 2017 was lower than in 2016, and fell to its lowest growth rate since 2008, remaining below the levels observed before the global financial crisis. Assesses the standard measures used to estimate gender pay gaps and proposes a complementary measure - the factor-weighted gender pay gap. Examines gender pay inequalities and estimates that: using average hourly wages, the (weighted) global gender pay gap is approximately 16%; and using median monthly wages the gender pay gap goes up to 22%. Discusses what lies behind the ‘unexplained’ component of the gender pay gap, including the lower returns for education of women within the same occupations, the effects on wages of the feminisation of occupations and workplaces, and the effect of the parenthood status of women and men on their respective wages. Highlights the motherhood pay gap and suggests a number of policy measures that might help to achieve pay parity between women and men. Describes the Swiss equal pay tool for small firms.


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International Labour Organization (ILO)
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International Labour Organization (ILO)

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